Fibroids are solid, fleshy tumours of the uterus. They arise from the myometrium ( muscle layer of the uterus). Fibroids are extremely common in women of the reproductive period i.e. between 20-40 years of age and frequently cause no symptoms when they are small. As they grow bigger in size they may cause
● Increase in menstrual flow
● Irregular bleeding including spotting
● Pain during menses
● Urinary or bowel symptoms
● Difficulty conceiving
● Swelling of the abdomen
● Heaviness in the lower abdomen
As far as fertility is concerned, fibroids generally donot prevent one from conceiving unless there is a cornual fibroid blocking a tube. However they can be a cause of recurrent miscarriage, specially if the fibroid is just under the endometrium, as then, it disturbs implantation of the fertilized ovum/embryo.
Treatment is mainly surgical. The fibroid alone can be removed ( myomectomy) either laparoscopically or by open surgery . Or the decision may be taken to remove the uterus ( hysterectomy) specially if the fibroid is very large, if there are multiple tumours and if family is completed.